Showing posts with label Brand Positioning. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Brand Positioning. Show all posts

Customer Experience, listen, indulge and embrace

Or as we call it in branding “ Brand offering “ … the unique selling proposition 

Brand Promise

Because we know how important it is to get your food on time…
If we are more than 30 minutes late on your confirmed order  time , your order is FREE….
"we delay, we pay”. 


It's the tangible benefit that makes a product or service desirable. And assures  brand stand out position in online food delivery spectrum in KSA


A practice embedded in each policy and procedure of brand daily operations.


Manifested in operations , monitored and controlled by customer service  after the set procedure is confident in its abilities and has developed a controllable and consistent customer experience


  • First 30 days,  internal and external communications + penalties funded by marketing budget
  • Next 30 days customer care will fund
  • Final 30 days and forward each team member fail the promises will pay for the order value.

Worldwide practice

  • FedEx —when it absolutely, positively has to get there overnight.
  • Careem — if we are late on your airport trip, its free
  • Apple — Own the coolest, easiest-to-use cutting-edge phones, computers and other consumer electronics
  • McKinsey & Company — Hire the best minds in management consulting
  • — High-quality training that’s affordable and convenient
  • IDEO — Industrial design for companies that want to innovate

Industry: Food & Beverage, QSR, Online food order application
Brand: Local, 9 months since launch.
County: Saudi Arabia
Date: September 2016 

Tiffany | Tiffany Blue by

Sugar Pop Wishes shows you can position your brand around nearly anything to increase brand awareness -- in their case it's around their signature blue. Instagram users posts tens of thousands of photos with the hashtag #tiffanyblue and many of the blue items have nothing to do with Tiffany. 

Unilever | Bright Future

This week saw the roll-out of Unilever's latest film in its wider 'Bright Future' sustainability campaign, which highlights the 'social good' that its brands – including Dove, Persil and Domestos - are doing to help build a better future. 
The TV, online and in-store campaign, by Ogilvy, is running in the UK, Brazil, South Africa and Indonesia, putting the spotlight on sustainability initiatives carried out by its individual brands, rather than just the corporate entity.  

“People increasingly care about how the decisions they make affect the world we live in," said Keith Wedd, Chief Marketing and Communications Officer, Unilever. "Our Bright Future campaign shows people that when they buy our products they’re not just purchasing a bar of soap, they’re enabling children to live past the age of five by helping to teach handwashing; and they’re helping children access education." 
“Brands with a purpose are at the heart of Unilever and we believe that the small choices we all make every day can make a big difference to the world we live in,” he added. 
The campaign centres on a video called 'So Long Old World', featuring a young girl talking about changes happening in the world, alongside which text pops up to show exactly how Unilever's brands have contributed to that.  

Levi’s Go Forth Campaign “Now is Our Time”

The Levi’s brand introduced the first global campaign in the brand’s 138 years of history, “Go Forth - Now is Our Time” is now launching in 24 countries around the world.

The campaign tag line is “NOW IS OUR TIME.” It presents a message that anything can happen in our life, but no matter what happens, we should accept our time and keep a positive attitude. It’s a phrase representing positive feelings of those who try to move forward in their jeans. “GO FORTH” is Levi’s brand message. Through the message, Levi’s is transmitting the spirit to survive the modern world while reminding us the pioneers who carved out the frontier (New World) in jeans during the period of development and settlement of the American West.

Levi Strauss is running “Now is Your Time”, the latest instalment in the Go Forth advertising series, featuring “The Laughing Heart”, a poem by Charles Bukowski. The commercial, print ads and the website,, bring together glimpses of hopeful Berlin youth in an effort to inspire positive engagement with the future. The campaign, launched globally, is not yet running in the UK, due to the resemblance of some images to the current wave of riots in British cities.

The Laughing Heart

Your life is your life
don’t let it be clubbed into dank submission.
Be on the watch.
There are ways out.
There is a light somewhere.
It may not be much light but
it beats the darkness.
Be on the watch.
The gods will offer you chances.
Know them.
Take them.
You can’t beat death but
you can beat death in life, sometimes.
And the more often you learn to do it,
the more light there will be.
Your life is your life.
Know it while you have it.
You are marvelous
the gods wait to delight
in you.

Levi's Go Forth Now Is Our Time - Fireworks
Levi's Go Forth Now Is Our Time - Fireworks
Levi's Go Forth Now Is Our Time - Jeans


The Go Forth campaign was developed at Wieden+Kennedy by executive creative directors Mark Fitzloff and Susan Hoffman, creative director Tyler Whisnand, creative director/art director Jeff Williams, creative director Eric Baldwin, copywriter Antony Goldstein, art director Julia Blackburn, producer Sarah Shapiro, agency executive producer Ben Grylewicz, with writer Charles Bukowski.
Filming was shot by director Ralf Schmerberg at Radical Media by executive producer Donna Portaro, director of photography Daniel Gottschalk and line producer Munir Abbar.
Editor was Tommy Harden at Joint Editorial, with post producer Ryan Shanholtzer, and post executive producer Patty Brebner. Visual effects were produced at Method Studios by VFX executive producer Robert Owens, Flame artist Claus Hansen, VFX producer Ananda Reavis. Titles and graphics were produced at W+K Studio.
Music, “Anjos”, was composed by Julianna Barwick. Sound and music were licensed and produced at Search Party. Sound was mixed by Jeff Payne at Eleven Sound.
Photography was by Jeff Luker and Randall Mesdon.

Havaianas | Why I will pay 20$ for an item does not worth more than 1$?

Havaianas are truly well developed brand and  2010 summer campaign supports strength and personality of the brand to stay true to what Havaianas stands for — a brand that expresses the Brazilian way of life, through vibrant, laid back, colorful and bold characteristics. "Havaianas. A Brazilian original since 1962."

$20 flip-flops are no luxury. Luxury is not having to wear shoes.
Live life unlaced.
Arrive in a convertible.
When it come to colors, less is not more. It's just boring.

Agency: AlmapBBDO, São Paulo, Brazil

Chief Creative Officer: Marcello Serpa

Creative Director: Luiz Sanches
Art Director: Julio Andery
Copywriter: Sophie Schoenburg
Planners: Cintia Gonçalves, Sabrina Guzzon & Amanda Thomaz
Typographer: Jose Roberto Bezerra

Havaianas: the story of a brand

The Alpargatas Group first designed inexpensive cloth shoes for Brazilian coffee farmers in 1907. Continuing the global footwear tradition, the Havaianas brand, owned by Alpargatas S.A, moved to launch its products worldwide, with the Pacific United States and Australia – both areas with a strong beach culture where consumers already wear sandals – becoming the first high volume international markets in 1998. Since that time, Havaianas has become an iconic brand with global reach.
Today more than 13 percent of the company’s sales come from overseas markets. With the set up of offices in New York and Madrid, the company is taking big steps towards dipping its toes into the US and European markets, but while their brand awareness in Brazil is 100% and about 45% in Australia, in the US and Europe it is still a mere 20 to 25%.
Turning a commodity into a brand of desire
In 1988 Havaianas was at a crossroads. The brand had only one style and one colour. It was “A commodity that had no emotional appeal” as Carla puts it. New manufacturers came into the market, eroding Havaianas’ market share, and sales started to decline.
Then in 1993, the company started to reposition the brand. New products were introduced – which have produced over 300 shoes of varying colour and style – and a new emotional personality was created for the brand. What the public sees now is the result of a carefully orchestrated brand reinvention strategy that took over 15 years to come to fruition.

The results
Since Havaianas emerged from its reinvention strategy in 1994, sales have been growing by a steady 8 percent each year. In 2008 the company sold 184 million pairs of its now famous rubber sandal, 25 million of which were sold outside Brazil. Inside Brazil, the company has achieved the amazing brand penetration rate of 850 pairs sold per 1000 inhabitants.

Our brand is fundamental for our expansion strategy…
Havaianas have a good product but it is their brand proposition what forms its DNA. “Our brand and the emotional and intangible aspects of it are fundamental in exploring new markets. This is what makes our product so seductive not only in Brazil but also abroad”.
…and successful outside means more successful inside
The interesting thing about Havaianas’ success is that the success of their brand abroad has a positive impact in the local market. ”The more successful the product was outside the more proud the Brazilians were of the product in Brazil”.
Own a big idea
Life is full of contradictions and good brands could provide a platform to resolve them. The beauty of Havaianas is that by expressing universal themes – some of them associated to Brazil and its people: optimism, freedom, joy and energy – it resolves some of the country’s innumerable contradictions. Havaianas are simple and sophisticated, for the poor and the rich, traditional and modern, fashionable and casual. “a brand of improbable combinations”.
Our brand is our personality
The organisations has a clear understanding of what a brand is and what isn’t. For Havaianas the brand transcends the visual realm, is more than the logo. “For us our brand is the personality and character of the product”.
Understand the brand internally
In Brazil the company has a 120 people working and 60 people on the sales force, 30 people in the USA and 30 in Madrid. They all understand what the brand is about and live it.
Establish bold and creative collaborations
The challenge for Havaianas is to grow without losing its edge. New ideas come from establishing a network of inspiring collaborations with people and companies. For example, the creative director of BBDO Brasil – Marcello Serpa, one of the most prestigious advertising men in Brazil – was crucial in repositioning the brand. He has helped to evolve the brand’s communications by adding edge and originality to its advertising. He acts like, and virtually is, the creative director of the brand.
Feed on the reputation of global brands
As a way to raise its profile globally, the brand has joint distribution and product development efforts with brands like Celine, HStern, The Gap and Swarovski.
Measure efficiency
For Havaianas, measuring all the different variables of the brand’s health is part of their success. More specifically they measure: brand perception, brand tracking studies in all the countries, awareness, trial, personality traits, advertising effectiveness, etc.
The brand in the future
Their ambition is to be bigger both inside and outside Brazil. The potential outside Brazil is enormous given the very high penetration in Brazil: 150 million sandals are sold in a country of 190 million inhabitants.
Finally, to grow and nurture a healthy brand:

  •        Pay close attention to customers: understand and observe how they use the product
  •        Be true to the brand essence and to what you stand for.
  •        Avoid making quick profits based on decisions that could erode your brand equity. Think in the longer term.
  •       Every touch point reflects the brand essence; make sure you answer the phone in a way that reflects your brand.
  •        Reinforce the brand message internally.

Microsoft Windows 7 | My Idea

Nearly a billion people use Windows. Their ideas added up to Windows 7. Learn more about Windows 7:

The Brand Gap

How to bridge the distance between business strategy and design

View more documents from coolstuff.

Positioning Strategy

An exasperated CEO stood up in the board meeting and exclaimed, “Is that all you marketing know how to do, compete on price?!”

In today’s marketplace where everybody’s competing for the same shrinking budget and differentiation is hard to come by, marketers often think of price as their only lever.

That’s just incompetent marketing, plain and simple.

There are lots of ways to differentiate a product. You can even create the perception of differentiation, if you’re creative enough. It’s called product positioning and it’s something of an art.

Here are Five fundamental product positioning principles that will help you destroy the competition:

  1. Find a product attribute that captures the customer’s imagination. It’s so easy to get trapped in the same old box of features and benefits. If you can’t differentiate that way, look at the problem with fresh eyes and fresh data. Find a new attribute that can get customers excited and focus your positioning around it.
  2. Market share gains are expensive. There’s simply no way around this. Market share comes at a heavy cost and your product planning and positioning must reflect that or your P&L will suffer and you’ll end up back at the drawing board. The cost is a function of how entrenched the leaders are and the perceived “switching cost” for customers.
  3. Reinvent the “customer experience.” Nothing matters more, and it’s not just for Internet and B2B. Just as with product attributes, you can shake up the competitive landscape by rethinking the customer experience in new terms. What’s important to customers changes as a function of time and market conditions. Take advantage of it.
  4. Only target up, not down the totem pole. Publicly and to customers, always position your product relative to the market leader. It elevates your product in terms of customer perception. That said, train your sales force (and other internal groups) on features - benefits versus all competitors. That’s a whole different story.
  5. Infrastructure (or ecosystem) as a competitive barrier. This is an important and often ignored aspect of product planning and positioning. Many products and services, especially in technology, require related companies and industries to support them in some way. If you get enough support for your product, it can be an extraordinarily effective competitive barrier that you can use in positioning.

Here’s a great example that utilized four of the five principals. When Toyotaentered the luxury automotive sector with the Lexus brand, it 1) made “ergonomics” and “quality” the new “performance” and “luxury,” 2) initially undercut the competition to gain entry and early market share, 3) created a low-stress and more respectful showroom experience, and 4) targeted Mercedes andBMW - up the totem pole.

Apple also uses positioning strategy extraordinarily well.

Samsung has done a great job with their product positioning. They focused on their strengths of innovations in technology and design to overtake Sony in consumer electronics.

Subway Sandwiches "EAT FRESH" have done a good job with their positioning. They're leveraging on their 'fresh, natural food' strength to edge out the competition in the fast food market.

on the other side in today’s marketplace, positioning has multiple problems:

1) Positioning is immeasurable: You can’t say “our positioning has improved our sales by 5 % or as a result of our positioning strategy, our brand is 12% better than competitions. Furthermore, it is impossible to measure the ROI or benchmark positioning.

2) Positioning is only suitable for mass markets. Yet branding today is about segmentation and communicating and engaging with those segments via relevant channels and with messages that resonate specifically with those segments or niche markets. Does this mean that a company should develop different positioning for different niches?

3) Positioning is suitable for mass markets with limited competition and limited consumer access to media and information. Today, consumers can get any information they want on anything from anywhere.

4) The wikipedia definition is a top-down, company knows best, hierarchical marketing approach. Yet we live in a C2C environment in which consumers define brands.

5) Positioning is one-way. The company knows best and you must listen to us. We tell you how our products are positioned. Bu today, if you are not entering into 2 way conversations with consumers you are about to join the brand graveyard.

6) Positioning was developed for the US mass market of the 1970’s. But we’re in a globalized world now, with much more competition and more knowledgeable consumers.

7) Positioning is competition, not customer driven. The basic premise of positioning is that you want to be number 1 or number 2 in a category in a prospect’s mind. If you can’t be number 1 or number 2 in an existing category because of competition, you make your own category. In today’s congested marketplace, the investments required to develop a new category are enormous. Furthermore, besides the difficulty and expense of creating your own category, you are also letting your marketing be driven by the competition rather than consumer demands for value.


Positioning (marketing)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jennie-O Turkey Store – Look At Turkey Now

Category: Packaged Food
Client: Jennie-O Turkey Store
Primary Agency: BBDO Minneapolis
Media Agency: PHD


Persuade people to alter their ritual in preparing a traditional Thanksgiving meal

Most people don't find turkey very compelling. Jennie-O does, and their innovative product portfolio has introduced new ways to prepare and enjoy turkey. One example is Jennie-O's Oven Ready fresh-frozen turkey. Oven Ready allows you to make a perfect whole turkey without thawing, cleaning or prepping. It comes sealed in a fool-proof cooking bag which goes straight from the freezer to the oven.

Thanksgiving, “the Super Bowl of Turkey,” is owned by BUTTERBALL. The BUTTERBALL brand enjoys near-universal awareness of 96% (Source: GFK Research 2006 brand awareness tracking study) and U.S. sales of $600 million (Source: 2006 Smithfield Foods Investor Information). The purchase and preparation of the iconic BUTTERBALL traditional turkey has been a Thanksgiving ritual for over 50 years.

Jennie-O's desire to introduce Oven Ready's game-changing proposal around the “star” of the Thanksgiving meal posed a considerable strategic challenge.


Since Oven Ready's 2004 introduction, Jennie-O had seen modest growth in awareness and product interest. The feeling at Headquarters was that Oven Ready was not living up to its market potential. Thanksgiving '06 was earmarked as a “make or break” season, however the Oven Ready media plan budget had to remain under $3.5MM consistent with previous years-$3.3MM in '05 and $3.1MM in '04 (Source: Jennie-O Historical OR Market Plan Overview).

A. Quantifiable business goal:

Achieve double digit growth in Oven Ready shipped units over 2005 benchmark (Source: Jennie-O 2006 OR Market Plan).

B. Behavioral goal:

Increase Oven Ready product awareness via “branded experiences” to stimulate word of mouth product buzz in both consumer and trade (Source: Jennie-O 2006 OR Market Plan).

C. Perceptual/Attitudinal goal:

Increase Unaided Product/Brand Connection over 2005 benchmark of 43% (Source: Hall & Partners Research Pre-Post OR Tracking study).


“Our idea was to rekindle memories of the mess that comes with preparing a traditional turkey while communicating Oven Ready's hassle-free, perfect turkey promise.”

Jennie-O's previous campaigns focused on Oven Ready's “fool proof” convenience. 2006 qualitative and quantitative consumer research (Source: Hall & Partners Research Pre-Post OR tracking study) indicated Oven Ready's greatest appeal was more specific than the broad “fool proof” message. What really intrigued people was Oven Ready's promise of a great tasting turkey without the “ick-factor” that comes from handling, thawing and cleaning a traditional Thanksgiving turkey.

We also began to understand the limits of our product offering. We're not for everyone. Oven Ready isn't the turkey for “first-timers” or “center-piece artisans” striving to impress on the big day, but rather for all those who can relate to the pain-in-the-neck mess that comes with thawing, cleaning and prepping a traditional bird.

As we propped deeper into the experiences of Thanksgiving veterans, we discovered the familiar, traditional holiday imagery paled to their vivid, often hilarious, personal turkey preparation “horror stories” (Source: agency qualitative OR research groups 2006).

If we could somehow harness the power of these rich, albeit negative, experiences to the promise of Oven Ready, we believed we could begin to achieve Oven Ready's market potential.


Our communication strategy was to rekindle memories of the messy hassles surrounding the traditional Thanksgiving turkey while portraying Oven Ready's perfect turkey promise.

We identified an attitudinally-defined target, “Promise Seekers,” who are Thanksgiving – experienced meal-preparer, willing to pay more and break tradition for Oven Ready's promise of a great tasting turkey without the mess (Source: Hall & Partners A&U 2006 Study).

To maximize the effectiveness of our $3.3MM media budget, we concentrated the vast majority of our plan within the two-weeks prior to Thanksgiving 2006. Our media strategy was to reach “Promise Seekers” via multiple touch points as close as possible to their purchase decision. A mix of focused national and local market support delivered the plan.

The integrated 2006 “Look at Turkey Now” campaign utilized product placement, interactive, retail experience, word of mouth, trade direct, trade sales promotion and advertising (TV, online, print). Following are brief descriptions of our content within the channels we utilized:

Advertising: Our print, television and online ads communicated Oven Ready's no-mess benefit via an “aprons-away” visual device symbolizing our no apron-required experience.

Interactive: There is a surge of online communication around Thanksgiving as families set plans for the Holiday. To get Oven Ready into conversation, we took advantage of people's tendency to pass along silly Thanksgiving related humor and created two viral videos based on real-life traditional turkey “nightmare stories.” These were posted on YouTube and Jennie O's website. Additionally, we created and placed a branded “Turkey Baster Toss” online game to communicate our no-basting benefit.

PR: While not part of a formal PR plan, we passed along our viral videos to some national TV networks hoping they'd take notice and give us a little bonus coverage.

Product Placement: Some skepticism existed to Oven Ready's “perfect turkey” promise because of its untraditional “turkey in a bag” packaging. A partnership with NBC's “The Biggest Loser” series provided an on-air demonstration of Oven Ready's convenience and out-of-the-oven appeal in a national “reality TV” format.

Retail Experience: Boosted by our trade sell-in program – “Ask me why I'm perfect,” we were able to surround our Oven Ready grocery store displays with floor graphics and other in-store tactics which conveyed the easy steps to a perfect turkey.

Word of Mouth: We enlisted a word of mouth specialist agency partner, to sign on 3,200 targeted women in 5 DMA's to sample the product and generate discussions about Oven Ready's ease of preparation and overall taste.

Direct: Our trade sell-in program included a direct mailer targeting grocery stores' meat managers to support Jennie O's broker representatives prior to in-person sales meetings.

Communications Touch Points

Additional Marketing Components: A supplemental PR program created outside of our “Look at Turkey Now” campaign featured the daughter of Jennie O's founder (the Jennie namesake) talking about the benefits of Oven Ready. The effort resulted in 879 local print and radio placements (Source: Jennie-O 2007 OR Market Review).

Reach: National

Total Media Expenditure: $2–5 million


A. Quantifiable business goal:

Achieve double digit growth in Oven Ready shipped units over 2005 benchmark (Source: Jennie-O 2006 OR Market Plan).


Units shipped in 2006 increased 92% (Source: Jennie-O 2007 OR Marketing Review).

B. Behavioral goal:

Increase Oven Ready product awareness via “branded experiences” to stimulate word of mouth product buzz in both consumer and trade (Source: Jennie-O 2006 OR Market Plan).


Achieved 200,069 tracked conversations via word of mouth program – 32% over estimate (Source: agency post program tracking report 2007)
Viral videos were picked up and featured on ABC's Good Morning America and CNN's American Morning, Showbiz Tonight, Situation Room and Prime News (cumulative audience of 5.9 MM viewers) (Source: agency media tracking tracking report 2007)

C. Perceptual/Attitudinal goal:

Increase Unaided Product/Brand Connection over 2005 benchmark of 43% (Source: Hall & Partners Research Pre-Post OR Tracking study).


Achieved 70% Unaided Product/Brand Connection (Source: Hall & Partners Research Pre-Port OR tracking study 2007)

Anything Else Going on that might have Helped Drive Results?

2006 was Oven Ready's third year in the marketplace. While our success was significantly greater in 2006 than in previous years, we do believe we benefited from some 2005 carry-over marketplace and awareness momentum. One nice awareness push came from an on-air, unpaid endorsement by Ellen DeGeneres on her talk-show in which she raved about the product prior to Thanksgiving 2005.

Bond & Bond – Cut to the chase

Bond & Bond – Cut to the chase

Category: Retail/Etail
Agency: DraftFCB
Advertiser: Bond & Bond
Campaign: Cut to the Chase


Bond & Bond sales had been declining at an average of 2.4% pa for two years. Yet the appliance retail category had been growing at 7.2%.

DraftFCB set out to reverse Bond & Bond's fortunes using advertising only. There would be no increase in advertising spend and no change to product and pricing strategy.

The agency created a straight-talking campaign that told informed shoppers in the target audience “you want it, we've got it, let's talk'.

This campaign won DraftFCB a Gold EFFIE for retail/etail.


Bond & Bond was in a difficult situation with sales declining, relentless advertising from competitors and New Zealand facing a recession.

All brand health measures were falling, including top-of-mind awareness, store visits and sales conversion.

Any new strategy for Bond & Bond could not be to the detriment of larger sister brand, Noel Leeming. The challenge was to establish a strong new position as part of a brand portfolio strategy.

Pricing and the in-store experience would not be changed so the advertising had to work hard.


Rather than traditional soft measures such as brand health this campaign had to halt the decline in sales of 2.4% pa and return Bond & Bond to growth within six months.


The campaign break-through came with identifying a new target: Bond & Bond would target 'Mission Accomplished Shoppers'.

Mission Accomplished Shoppers are more likely to be young males or young couples. They like to research the options before entering a store and talking to a salesperson.

When they go in they want to be informed and confident. They'll know exactly what they want, or at least have narrowed it down.

They often don't accept the displayed price. They treat the in-store environment like a sporting arena. Their aim is to get the best deal possible, and the sales person is their opponent.


The Bond & Bond brand would be all about 'cutting to the chase'. The facts were delivered in a straight-talking style – the features, the price, the deal – without the over-hyped sales pitch.

This approach was summed up by a new brand-line; 'You want it, We've got it, Let's Talk.' To get noticed a humorous and non-PC approach was used to connect with the target audience.


  • None


  • TV for attitude and urgency Print to promote 'killer deals' Mailers for features and benefits


  • Television, Newspaper, Catalogue, Point of Purchase, Online


  • Over $3 million


Target: Halt the decline in sales of 2.4% pa and return Bond & Bond to growth within 6 months.

The impact of the new campaign on sales was immediate and sustained.

This was made even more exceptional given that the category began to run out of steam due to the economic downturn. (-0.6% final quarter '07, year on year)

With the category in decline, and Bond & Bond sales in growth, the trend had truly been reversed.

Bond & Bond Sales Performance vs Category

And despite improvements to Brand Health not being an objective:

Declining brand health measures were being reversed within three months of taking the new communications strategy to market.

Analysis supplied by Colmar Brunton stated:

The brand communication awareness trend had been reversed with most of the positive shift being driven by TV and mailers. Of those who recalled B+B advertising 29% felt more positive towards the brand and 36% claimed they would be more likely to shop there.

And the new creative was engaging the new target market in particular.

On average 60% of respondents recognised seeing the new campaign. This was greater amongst our young life-stage target audience groups i.e. 67% and 73% recognition amongst 18–44 and 18–34 year olds respectively.